Although it may be observed in all types of geo-climatic conditions, its intensity is more serious in the arid, semiarid, mountainous and undulating regions. As the large-scale farms continue to gain political support and power, the end of the small-scale farmer class is almost inevitable. Impact on Employment: New agricultural strategy is followed by the application of water, fertilizer and other inputs. Pesticidal hazard Pesticides travel through food chain and accumulate in higher organism Bio-magnification. Apart from affecting agricultural crops, a high water table causes floods even following slight rains due to the reduced storage capacity of the soil. This was an attempt to become self-sufficient in production of food grains. In order to meet, the water requirements of rice crop, the farmers have to irrigate their fields several times.
As a matter of fact, the area, production and productivity of wheat and rice have shown substantial increase during the last three decades. The newly developed synthetic herbicides and pesticides controlled weeds, deterred or kill insects, and prevented diseases, which also resulted in higher productivity. Some of the ecological problems emerged out of the Green Revolution are the depletion of forests, reduction of pasture lands, Stalinization, water logging, soil erosion, lowering of underground water table, soil, water and air pollution, reduction in biodiversity, decline in soil fertility, silting of rivers and emergence of several diseases and health hazards. In this revolution, they want to develop new technologies and agricultural methods that will increase overall production, but will also conserve natural resources and limit the effects on the environment. Imbalance in nutrient status causing significant deficiency of N, P, K, Zn, S, Mo and B and disturbance of soil texture and its physicochemical properties. Many industries producing agriculture, machinery, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides etc. This new technology laid emphasis on the adoption of the whole package simultaneously.
However, in the state of Haryana this has resulted in continuous environmental degradation, particularly of soil, vegetation and water resources. Soil organic matter levels are declining and the use of chemical inputs is intensifying. The reduction in biodiversity in the areas of the Green Revolution may have long term serious ecological consequence. This has led to an increased investment in alternative technology and products including an interest in Integrated Pest Management. On the other hand, increasing yields reduces the amount of land needed for agriculture, permitting more land to remain intact or be utilized for an alternative purpose. S , most of it during the green revolution.
In this regard, organic farming, which is a holistic production management system for promoting and enhancing health of agro-ecosystem, has gained wide recognition as a valid alternative to conventional food products and ensures safe food for human consumption. Toxicity is defined as the presence of an excessive solute concentration in the soil solution that adversely affects plant growth. An additional study found heavy metals and pesticide chemicals in drinking water. The ambitious cultivators of the Indira Gandhi Canal command area have changed their land use pattern as they instead of pastures are growing rice, cotton and wheat with the help of irrigation. All these inputs reduce the fertility of soil in the long run. Intensification of water use has led to soil salinization, draw down of once abundant ground water resources.
The saline and alkaline affected tracts, locally known as kaller in Punjab and reh in Uttar Pradesh, have expanded and increased in area. An overview of these ecological problems has been given in the following paras: 1. Limitations of the Green Revolution : In spite of several achievements, the green revolution has several defects: i More inequality among farmers Inter-personal inequalities : The new technology requires a huge amount of investment which can be only, afforded by the big farmers. These insects and pests are controlled by plant protection chemicals. Therefore, urbanization can be seen as a direct consequence of the limits of agriculture coupled with the rapid population growth that is occurring at the same time. Nitrogenous fertilizer due to leaching and caused nitrate pollution of water bodies. Costs like fertilizers, irrigation systems, mechanical equipment and external labor produced negative consequences for rural small-scale farmers.
Though it seems that many people are living better conditions than before, if environmental health is not considered a factor. Consequences-Uprising: Wherever there is social unrest and social class differences, there will always be rebellion. An outgrowth of the original Green Revolution was a joint effort by developed nations to help millions of people in India and other countries by developing hybrid seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. So it could be assumed that their conditions are improved for those who become a part of the crop agriculture, while other who are in other natural resource dependent jobs, suffer from the degradation of the environment and availability of useable land for their trade, as shown through the livestock agriculture decline. Unable to bear the predicament of a lost livelihood and inability to repay huge loans, farmers are committing suicides. Shift from Traditional Agriculture: That it has broken away from the old and outdated traditional practices.
It is, however, not a permanent solution of the problem and requires continuous monitoring and research. Since the opportunities were not growing in rural areas, due to the limited amount of land available for crop agriculture, we see migration to urban areas in hopes of finding jobs in unskilled labor industries. Surprisingly enough, malaria has become a major killer in the arid and semiarid regions of Rajasthan. Some scientists are calling for a second Green Revolution, and are referring to it as the Doubly Green Revolution. Wetlands have also attracted outsiders non-agriculturists from nearby towns to invest capital in buying farms. However, before the green revolution, Rajasthan was a livestock agriculture focus society than crop agriculture. Their site includes wide ranging publications on research efforts.
In arid areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, they were less successful as many farmers did not have access to fertilizers and pesticides. Traces of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium and arsenic were also detected in rice, wheat, maize, mustard, cotton, sesame, fruits and vegetables. Increased use of pesticides and herbicides polluted the soil and water surrounding farm areas. Prosperity of Farmers: Improved the economic lot of the farmers. The sudden rise in the demand for labour in these areas induced mechanisation and labour-saving practices in general. Interesting enough, these people were making more money than those who stayed in these technologically underdeveloped area.
The people worked these lands to produce crops and then about 25%-50% of their crops were taken as tax imposed by the lords of the land. In the 1960s there was some noticeable rural to urban migration, having 21% of rural migration was to urban areas for inner state migration. Lowering of Underground Water Table: Under the package programmme the area of wheat and rice has increased significantly. Overall, the rural growth and limitation caused the urbanization, moving the people of India around searching for new opportunities. The increased rate of soil erosion is not only affecting the areas from which soil is being removed, but also the areas in which it is deposited.